Breakfast Consumption Habit and Its Nutritional Contribution in Latin America
Abstract: The aim of this study was to provide updated data on breakfast consumption, associated factors and its contribution to daily intakes among Latin American populations. A total of 9218 subjects, 15 to 65 years old, were evaluated in the ELANS study, a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted in eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela). Dietary data were obtained by two 24 h dietary recalls. Overall, 78.6% of the population were regular breakfast consumer, 15.9% occasional and 5.5% skippers. Adolescents were found to be the most frequent occasional consumers (19.2%) and skippers (6.8%). Among breakfast consumers (n = 8714), breakfast contributed to 444 ± 257 kcal, i.e., 23% of the total daily EI (16–27%). Breakfast consumers were more likely to be older adults than adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI:1.06–2.10) and physically active than insufficiently active (OR = 1.29, 95% CI:1.07–1.55), and were less likely to be underweight than normal weight (OR = 0.63, 95% CI:0.41–0.98). In most countries, breakfast was rich in carbohydrates, added sugars, saturated fat and calcium relative to the entire day, and the energy contribution of protein and fats was lower at breakfast than for the entire day. These findings will contribute to the development of data-driven nutrient recommendations for breakfast in Latin America.