Total and whole grain intake in Latin America
Purpose Understanding whole-grain intake and its associated factors is essential to tackle the double burden of malnutri- tion faced by Latin American countries. This study aimed to characterize total and whole grain intake in Latin American countries and to investigate foods contributing to these intake in the region. Methods Data were obtained from the multicenter cross-sectional survey Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS), including 9128 participants residing in urban areas of eight Latin American countries. Data collection was per- formed via two household visits using a standardized questionnaire and two 24 h dietary recalls. Usual dietary intake of total grain foods and foods containing whole grains was estimated. The association between the intake of grain food groups and sociodemographic variables was investigated using multiple linear regression models with random intercepts. Results Mean intake of total grain foods and foods containing whole grains was 318.6 g/d and 14.7 g/d, respectively. Total grain foods were less consumed by participants at older ages (−9.8 g/d), and females (−9.9 g/d), and more consumed by those in the lowest socioeconomic category (24.8 g/d). Foods containing whole grains were more consumed by participants at older ages (3.3 g/d), and females (4.0 g/d), while those in the lowest socioeconomic category consumed 2.9 g/d less. Major contributors to energy provided from foods containing whole grains were oatmeal, masa harina, whole-wheat bread, corn chips, and wheat crackers.